Russian trade capital has become a complete master of the domestic market.

Russian trade capital has become a complete master of the domestic market.

In 21 Ukrainian cities in 1665 there were 40 fairs, and in the 50s of the XVIII century. only on the Left Bank, fairs were held about 350 times a year, and bazaars – 8680.

In Slobozhanshchina in the middle of the XVIII century. There were about 120 annual fairs, and in the late 70’s – more than 200. The fairs were universal, they traded in textiles, haberdashery and household goods of foreign origin, iron shop, handicrafts, manufactories, agricultural products. At the same time there was a specialization of fair trade.

Further deepening of the division of labor between urban and rural areas, elements of specialization in industry and, in part, agriculture contributed to the strengthening of economic ties between certain economic regions of Ukraine. Gradually, a kind of trade chain was formed, connecting the Left Bank, Slobozhanshchina, the Right Bank, and Western Ukraine.

Merchants from all lands of Ukraine were mentioned in the descriptions of fairs and auctions of the Hetmanate. B. Khmelnytsky in his Universal in 1657 ordered that the Cossack officers "treat the people of Lviv as our own, and in any trade to the merchants do not interfere." The cities of the Poltava Regiment established regular contacts with the cities of the neighboring Kharkiv Regiment, and the Hadiach and Nizhyn Regiments with the cities of the Sumy Regiment. Sloboda merchants sold bread, vodka, dried fish, glue, leather, belts, cattle, as well as goods brought from Russian cities at the left-bank fairs. Bread, goods brought from the Right Bank and the Western Ukrainian lands, Poland, Silesia, Gdansk, Germany, and other countries came to the Sloboda market from the Left Bank.

Trade between the Left Bank of Ukraine, Slobozhanshchyna and Zaporizhia was actively developing. Trade people from the regiments bordering on the Zaporozhian lands – Gadyatsky, Lubensky, Myrhorodsky, Poltava – took an active part in the trade. Bread, canvas, wood, resin, tobacco, and vodka were imported, and fish, honey, wax, skins, and cattle were imported from Zaporizhia. Important was the trade in salt, which the Cossacks extracted in the Black Sea estuaries, and then sold to the left-bank Chumaks or delivered to the left-bank towns and villages.

Merchants from the right-bank and western Ukrainian cities traded in fairs Nizhyn, Romen, Starodub, Kharkiv, Sumy and other cities with wine, groceries, peasant handicrafts, and tar.

Through an extensive system of fairs, auctions and bazaars, goods were distributed throughout the Ukrainian lands, despite various obstacles: state borders, economic policy of governments, natural borders, customs, and so on. Trade did not recognize the political dismemberment of Ukraine, and this testified to the economic community of the Ukrainian population.

The intensification of commodity-money relations caused the emergence of new and the development of old trade centers. Especially many trade centers in the days of late feudalism operated on the Left Bank. In this respect, Lokhvytsia, Romny, Lubny, Pryluky, Gadyach, Pereyaslav, Chernihiv, Kozelets, Myrhorod, Baturyn, Hlukhiv, Khorol, and Nizhyn stood out, where three to five large fairs met annually. In Slobozhanshchyna, most fairs existed in Kharkiv, Zolochiv, Sumy, Taranovka, Artemivka, Olshany (four each), Valky (five), Stizhkovy Kut and Andriyivka (six), and Hotomli (eight). In the right-bank region, Rzhyshchiv, Mohyliv, Lutsk, Dubno, and Zhytomyr became important trade centers. Merchants or their representatives came here from different places to buy and sell. During the XVII – XVIII centuries. identified the main trade routes. In fact, several of them converged in each city.

There were two roads from Kyiv to Kharkiv. The first went through Pereyaslav, Lubny, Myrhorod, Sorochyntsi, Pryluky, Zinkiv; the second – through Brovary, Gogoliv, Bykiv, Makeyevka, Pryluky. Up to 10 roads passed through Chernihiv: to Kyiv, Hlukhiv, Novgorod-Siversky, Nizhyn, Kozelets, Kremenchuk, Kherson, to the Polish border. Western Ukrainian lands were connected with Kyiv by the so-called Southern Way.

Waterways along the Dnieper, Dniester, Tisza and other rivers played an important role in the development of trade. In 1657 a river port began to operate in Kyiv.

Thus, in the XVI – XVIII centuries. Ukraine developed domestic trade, the main forms of which were fairs, auctions, bazaars, and permanent trade establishments, between which there was a close economic connection. They stimulated economic prosperity, promoted the development of commodity production and specialization of individual districts, united in a single economic body of villages and cities, districts and lands of Ukraine. The process of forming the national market continued. In the Left Bank and Slobidska Ukraine, Ukrainian merchants were legislated.

Foreign trade played a significant role in the economic development of Ukrainian lands. The development of manufacturing, cities, and capitalist relations led to a decline in agricultural production in Western Europe. In particular, England and the Netherlands are becoming a huge market for agricultural products and raw materials from Ukraine. The largest port in the Baltic Sea, Gdansk, played a major role in Ukraine’s trade with the West.

Among the imported goods the most important were English, Hungarian, Wroclaw cloth, Chinese, English and Silesian fable, gold, silver and silk brocade, silk, grizzly, taffeta, Venetian and Florentine velvet, gold and silver buttons, violins, Saxon farce weapons , medicines, books, copper, maps, agricultural implements.

Trade with Turkey and Crimea was characterized by considerable scale and ancient traditions. Exports from Ukraine were dominated by crop and livestock products, handicrafts, and weapons. Merchants from Turkish and Crimean lands brought kumachi, paper, silk, coffee, sapyan, frankincense, groceries, wine, walnuts and a number of other goods.

During the second half of XVII – XVIII centuries. The Ukrainian Hetmanate, Slobozhansk and Zaporizhia lands gradually became involved in the process of forming the All-Russian market. The growth of Russia’s demand for certain goods of Ukrainian production, caused the intensive development of certain branches of agriculture and industry in Ukraine, accelerated the specialization of its economic regions. In turn, Ukraine received products from Russian cities and villages.

Thus, ceramic, copper, tin utensils, furs, shoes, etc. were brought from Moscow. From Rostov, Taganrog, Kinburn – groceries and wine, from Suzdal – canvas, from the cities of the Volga region and the Don – fish, from Tula – iron and copper products. Crafted Tula weapons were in great demand in Ukraine. Russian merchants took part in almost all major Ukrainian fairs and auctions.

With the development of the economy, the expansion and deepening of domestic markets, Ukraine’s role in the foreign trade of the Russian state has significantly increased. A large number of goods from Western Europe and the Middle East, transported through Ukrainian customs, were later sold not only in Ukraine but also in the central provinces of Russia. Due to the export and import of goods in the South, Kherson, Taganrog, Evpatoria, Odessa and other port cities were rapidly developing. Some of them, such as Odessa, turned into large industrial centers.

The formation of the All-Russian market to some extent contributed to the consolidation of the economic community in Ukraine, led to the merger of individual regions and the formation of a single economic organism.

Foreign trade relations of Western lands in the XVIII century. were at a much lower level than by the middle of the XVII century. Foreign trade turnover of Lviv in the XVIII century. decreased by 6 times, and the export of goods – by 29 times. Brody became the center of traditional trade between West and East. Trade with the Czech and German lands expanded. Exports of grain to the West decreased, and trade in cattle, cloth, and linen, which were bought for the Austrian army, the British, and the French fleets, increased.

In the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, trade was hampered by the privileges of the nobility. It was exempt from customs duties on domestic roads, as well as for exports and imports of goods. This reduced the trade turnover of merchants, limited the domestic market. On the Right Bank, the feudal lords restricted peasant trade, established a monopoly on the sale and purchase of agricultural products. In the Carpathians, peasants were virtually excluded from trade.

At the beginning of the XVIII century. in the Hetmanate there were changes in Ukrainian trade that were related to the foreign economic policy of the Russian government. By a charter of 1649 and the New Trade Statute of 1667, the Moscow state abolished English and Dutch privileges and restricted the rights of foreign merchants. Russian trade capital has become a complete master of the domestic market. Under Peter I, the position of Russian merchants in foreign trade strengthened. High tariffs were imposed on foreign goods, the import of some was banned, and the foreign trade activities of Russian merchants were encouraged.

The implementation of this policy on the Ukrainian lands that were part of the Russian state was aimed at transforming Russian-Ukrainian trade into colonial, to destroy the independent economic development of Ukraine.

Hetman D. Apostol tried to improve the conditions for Ukrainian trade: he protected local merchants from Moscow’s competition, issued an order to facilitate the latter’s departure from Ukraine, and forbade local authorities to hinder merchants and chumaks in their activities; introduced a moratorium on the payment of debts of merchants, especially those who conducted foreign trade. In 1729, on the initiative of D. Apostol, a meeting of Ukrainian merchants took place in Hlukhiv, the decision of which he passed on the abolition of obstacles to the export of goods banned by the Russian government to the tsar’s name.

In the "Decisive Points" abolished only the forced trade with the Moscow state and the obligation to trade through Russian ports. D. Apostol drew up a memorandum to the central government, in which he substantiated the main provisions on trade in Ukraine: free trade for Ukrainian and local merchants, for other foreign merchants – to trade in Kiev and Chernihiv during fairs twice a year. The tsarist government did not grant this request. Ukraine’s relations with other states were seen as their ties with Russia.